Full fledge Content Matetial /Internship Report For News Broadcaster/Anchor person/Reporter/Mediachannels

CONTENT:
1.INTRODUCTION
2.Acknowledgment
3.Mission( Functions if Organization)
4.Values
5.Vision
6.Prominent faces of Graduating from SMS.
7.Dedication
8.Objectives of Internship
9.Description of Internship
10.Duties Performed
11.Challenges
12.Conclusion.

SCHOOL OF MEDIA STUDIES (SMS)
Home Labs School of Media Studies (SMS) About
Introduction
School of Media Studies (SMS), KICS UET Lahore has launched first official Web TV of UET. Web TV as a platform for reaching people all over the world. School of Media studies (SMS) is the first ever Media department of UET Lahore, running under the supervision of Al-Khwarizmi Institute of Computer Sciences (KICS) UET Lahore. It was inaugurated by Syed Raza Ali Gillani (Former Minister of Higher Education, GOVT of Punjab). SMS offers professional training courses in broadcast journalism. SMS provides an excellent environment including studios, NEWS Room and other facilities to train the students in an appropriate manner. It aims to provide trainings necessary to obtain a position and build a career in highly competitive, liberal dominated field of broadcast journalism.
Mission:
Prepare students for the society that we envision for tomorrow while making them effective, skilled, ethical communicators and citizens in a globalized world.

Vision:
The vision of SMS is to create and engage community where media professionals are ethical, understand practices and explore culture and public communication in a diverse and global society.
Core Values:
Engagement with community
Credibility
Commitment
Innovation
Technology to serve the public good

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

School of Media Studies (SMS), KICS UET Lahore has launched first official Web TV of UET. Web TV as a platform for reaching people all over the world. School of Media studies (SMS) is the first ever Media department of UET Lahore, running under the supervision of Al-Khwarizmi Institute of Computer Sciences (KICS) UET Lahore. It was inaugurated by Syed Raza Ali Gillani (Former Minister of Higher Education, GOVT of Punjab). SMS offers professional training courses in broadcast journalism. SMS provides an excellent environment including studios, NEWS Room and other facilities to train the students in an appropriate manner. It aims to provide trainings necessary to obtain a position and build a career in highly competitive, liberal dominated field of broadcast journalism.
SMS Intro
Mission: Prepare students for the society that we envision for tomorrow while making them effective, skilled, ethical communicators and citizens in a globalized world.
Vision: The vision of SMS is to create and engage community where media professionals are ethical, understand practices and explore culture and public communication in a diverse and global society.

Core Values:
Engagement with community
1.Credibility
2.Commitment
3.Innovation
Technology to serve the public good

Graduates of SMS becoming prominent faces of Mainstream Media Channels:
1.media1
I started my career as a News Anchor from School of Media Studies.their staff is professional and they train the students related to the field demand.-Jaziba Malik (Waqt News)
2.media2
I have done News Anchoring course from SMS.SMS played on important role to prepare me as a News Anchor.Today what I speak on screen is all because of School of Media Studies.- Arooba Khan (7 News)
3.media3
I used the platform of SMS UET Lahore for my preprations.I am really thankful to School of Media Studies because today wherever I am its just because of SMS – Zeeshan Ali (City News Network)
uet_news
University of engineering & technology has been flourished to an extent where it has
more than 4 sub campuses and over 8000 students. Producing creative and educative content UET News will cover
the gap and it will serve as a dedicated media cell of UET. The basic objectives of UET News are to :
Promote the idea of using technology as an academic platform.
Produce and broadcast programs where knowledge, curiosity innovation and entrepreneurship
will be the key for talented people around.
Promote the research based projects of UET.
Highlight Campus life and student activities.
Provide an effective communication tool to administration and students.
Encourage students to take part in discussion and debate focusing on youth.
Provide training to the students seeking career in broadcast journalism.
To address the critical need for improving communication with the stakeholders.
And much more

Dedication
I dedicate this report to my honorable parents in recognition of their worthand to my respectable teachers who are the guiding force for me and it istheir effort and hard work that showed me the path of success and prosperitywhich would be there for me for the rest of my life..“Keep your dreams alive. Understand to achieve anything requires faith and belief in yourself, vision, hard work, determination, and dedication.
Objectives of Internship
1.To enhance communication, Technical and analytical skills.
2.To acquire the corporate exposure,
3.
To implement the learning’s in practical life,
4.
To compete in the market in my specific field.
5.grabbing an opportunity to test the interests in particular career
6.
To develop particular skills in the application of theory to practical worksituations.
7.
To increase the sense of responsibility
8.
To pursue and practice effective interpersonal relationship
9.To gain in-depth knowledge of the formal functional activities of aparticipating organization.
10.
To motivate the students to acquire further knowledge and education
Organization’s description and Environment:
UET NEWS is a media organization working in Pakistan. It is one of themedia channels operating in the country. This organization offers a favorableenvironment. It encourages people to learn and implement their innovativeideas. The management was cooperative and helpful, promoting, facilitating
Description of internship:

During my six week of internship I performed many duties which added a lotto my learning and experience. All the tasks that I executed gave me a senseof responsibility. Sometimes there was too much responsibility on me, therewas excess of work and work load was divided by assigning tasks to severalpeople. connected by audio and video leads to different Channels, live feeds andOB vans. All the information, video and audio, captured were to be placedin different folders. The news was to be shared by networking intodifferent computers. Another job in this department was to
tikker
; anybreaking, important news on the slides was to be written within secondsand passed on to the tikker writer who meant to on air the breaking news.
The Second Department in which I worked was
segmenting department.
Inthe segmenting department we divide news into segments. Threesegments were made in this department:
o
Showbiz Segment
o
Sports Segment
o
Business SegmentFurther in this department we made news. Inpage was used to make thenews. Firstly EPS (Encapsulated post script file) was made of any kind of news. EPS is basically another tikker which is posted along the footage.After EPS, OC (On Camera) and VO (Voice Over) is made. OC is of maximum two to three lines while VO is the detailed news having nospecific limit. OC is basically that part of news which the News Caster isdelivering and image of News caster is being displayed on the TV.VO is that part of news on which the footage is displayed and the NewsCaster is reading the news behind the footage. EPS is saved by a specificprocess in Inpage through exporting, before exporting it, we save thenews in the Inpage simply and after exporting the news, EPS is made andall other news are saved in the rich text form.When the whole process of making news is complete, in order to circulatethe news in the whole channel, that news is shared through networking ina folder. The files which are required in the folder to access the news are:Inpage, Footages, Rich Text Form and EPS.

The third Department in which I worked is
NLE (News Linear EditingDepartment)
In the news linear editing department all the news andfootages which were captured were being edited and all the news weresorted out that which news is important or not and which news should beon Aired and which should not be on aired. All the footages were editedthere in the NLE department.
InProgram control room and master control room
basically the newswhich were sent from NLE were on Aired with the help of Chroma Keys andthe function of this department is also to make a connection with the newsCaster, the device which was used to make a contact with the news casterwas named as
Talkback.
The Virtual Set/Background was also changedthrough this department as per news timings i.e. new set for morningnews and another set for evening news/show. All the news was arrangedin the sequence on daily basis in this department and if any breakingnews arrives then it was adjusted in the queue of the news. The voicecontrol and colour toning of background was also done in this department. Transition speed was also controlled in this department with the help of chroma keys, the options which were there to control and dissolve thetransition were (Small, Medium and Fast). We used to control thetransition and camera by using the transition keys as it was our duty inthat department. When there was any live call (beeper) then we weresupposed to tell the news caster through talkback that a call has been onhold and you have to talk to that specific person on Air.

news channel there are some challenges which mainly are:
New advance technology in the globalized world is a challenge for newschannels in order to compete and to remain in the competition.
In Pakistan, more than two dozen media channels are operating.Competition is getting even tougher day by day. In such a competitiveenvironment survival of the fittest is possible only.
Quick reporting, efficiently and effectively is needed.
Programs and their genre are increasing on every channel. To keep thetransmissions engaged to attract our viewers is inevitable and one of thegreatest challenge.
Conclusions:
Internship in SMS was a learning experience where I managed to put inmy competencies and enhanced my abilities in order to get a close view of practical work and corporate sector. I learnt how media channels work andhow hectic the job is to get the news delivered. Hence working in a team isinevitable. The entire functions of the organization are well learned andpracticed and add a lot to my experience.
Recommendations:
SMS is still striving to make its place in the market. Competition is toughand in order to sustain its survival. SMS news should be going throughevaluation.

1.The channel must provide itself with up to date technology.
2.It should have proper OB vans and enough correspondents for thereporting purpose.

3.Different training courses should be arranged for the up lifting andimproving the quantity of work for employees.

4.News delivery should be done effectively.
5.Employees should get appraisals in the form of bonus for over time work

  1. There is also a problem of work overload for the employees and it shouldbe control properly so that the employees are motivated.
    Friendly environment must be practiced.
    ——————Thank you…

https://youtu.be/33LqdTHvMmc

my opinion( plz give your opinion about the world )it will be helpfull for others

What’s on your mind?..Today’s Era if we see that every girl wvery boy even every person in every age cheat one another for their purposes .The one nd best solution even they are boys are girls plz protect themselves nd give time to their families if uou have,childrens in their home play with them teach them nd tell them how they can protect themselve from the bad peoplex of the world..Child abuse ..women Harrasement even men are harrased ..if we have a look of today world how selfish every other person is become nd their is no value for human beings …wvery one just want to become success but our norms values our religious neglected very badly ..

“Critical Review of the Research Paper.

Assignment:
“Critical Review of the Research Paper.
Islamophobia nd Media:
“Islamophobia in the media refers to negative coverage of Islam-related topics, Muslims, or Arabs by media outlets in a way that is hostile, untrue, and/or misleading. Islamophobia is defined as “Intense dislike or fear of Islam, especially as a political force; hostility or prejudice towards Muslims”, and the study of how and to what extent the media furthers Islamophobia has been the subject of much academic and political discussion. Discussion of Islamophobia in the media is typically concerned with patterns of rhetoric employed either by a specific outlet or by the mass media of a particular country or area, such as the United States or Europe. Examples of this include disproportionate negative coverage of Islam compared to other religions, association of Muslims with terrorism, portrayal of Islam and its adherents as violent or primitive, and exclusion of Muslim perspectives from political and academic discussion, among other topics. In turn, responses to discussions of media Islamophobia often question the frequency, severity, and impact of rhetoric deemed Islamophobic, what constitutes Islamophobia in practice, and the political motivations behind discussions about Islamophobia.
There have been various instances in the media about how the Muslim community are often misrepresented to society, mostly in a way that centers heavily on terrorism, and paints Islam with a very broad brush.[original research? This is something that is seen in two major magazines, Newsweek and Time, which have been covering relations between the U.S. and Afghanistan over the last decade. Both of these publications distributed twenty leading articles that depicted about 57% of negative coverage in regards to current events in Afghanistan, about 37% neutral coverage, and only around 6% was positive information.This negative content would often consist of excessive mentioning of Al-Qaida and the Taliban, mistreatment of women, the recruitment of terrorists, etc. Numerous studies confirmed that the frequent repetition of a fact people might be convinced of it even if it is wrong, and this is called Illusory truth effect.
Studies have shown that over three-quarters of people in Western societies rely on the mass media, mainly television, as their primary source of information about Islam and Muslims.The Washington Post completed a study to examine newspapers’ coverage of Muslims compared to Catholics, Jews, and Hindus.The study first established a baseline for neutrality by analyzing 48,000 newspapers from various US newspapers between 1996 and 2015. Next the study analyzed 850,000 articles of which about 28% mentioned “Muslim” or “Islam”, about 41% that mentioned “Catholic”, about 29% that mentioned “Jew”, and about 2% that mentioned “Hindu”.This study found that 78% of all the articles that mentioned “Muslim” or “Islam” were negative in comparison ”with only 40 percent of those about Catholics, 46 percent about Jews, and 49 percent about Hindus.The study further filtered the content by cross referencing with articles that included “terrorism,” “extremism,” “radicalism,” “fundamentalism,” or “fanaticism,” “or their variants”.This revealed articles that contain terrorism and extremism words are more negative than those that do not.However, 69% of articles that do not contain references to terrorism and extremism were still negative.When the study removed articles with a mention of a foreign country “54 percent are negative, compared with only 37 percent of articles about Catholics, 36 percent of articles about Jews, and only 29 percent of articles about Hindus under similar conditions”.The narrative of the Western civilization being superior to its Islamic counterpart has been articulated into a binary of ‘us’ versus ‘them’. The media has pushed this narrative to the centre of the global conversation about Islam. Muslims believe that the Western media has been unfair to them, with the result that their second and third generations align themselves more with the global Muslim community.
Before any policy to address Islamophobia is worked out, it is important to have a proper understanding of the media’s role in spawning it. The establishment of a TV channel should be followed by research institutes and think tanks that are capable of generating ideas that can clarify misconceptions and win the battle of hearts and minds.
Thank you 😊.

loyality A women replied👍👍👌🏻

Critical Review:Islamophobia and the media.

Critical Review:
Islamophobia and the media.

While the problem of Islamophobia is quite deep-rooted and has exhibited itself in various forms, it has recently been fuelled by the growing trend of white supremacism. The wave of popular nationalism sweeping across Europe, North America and Australia has made far-right political parties, with an avowed anti-immigration agenda, not only politically relevant but also strong contenders for power in their respective countries.
This narrow nationalism presents a challenge to the idea of multiculturalism. Threatened by the rise of white supremacism and popular nationalism, the Western democratic and liberal model finds itself under tremendous stress. It also explains why globalization and nationalism are being considered mutually exclusive.
Any debate on Islamophobia and subsequent policy actions to address it needs to factor in the role of the media in promoting it. Understanding how the media has portrayed Islam and Muslims is critical to the containing and neutralizing its harmful effects.
In this age of mind-blowing inventions in technology, perceptions are more important than reality. The media is at the heart of how we construct notions about the ‘other’ and engage with ‘them’.Media representation of Islam and Muslims particularly after 9/11 must be an engaging case study. The problem is not that the media does not cover the issues of Muslims. What is worrying is that it highlights negative news involving Muslims more than positive news. The absence of positive and more representative stories helps people form stereotypical opinions of Islam.
It has been empirically proved that people who do not have direct interaction with Muslims and for whom the media is the primary source of information tend to have more negative opinions about Islam than those who interact with Muslims in their neighbourhoods, and places of work, etc. By focusing on the limited voices within the Muslim community, the Western media allows ‘other’ commentators to shape the worldview of local citizens about Islam and its followers.The Western media employs the key concepts of news values, framing and agenda-setting during the process of selection and presentation of the news involving Muslims. Its representational approach is also marked by ‘Orientalism’, whereby Muslims are essentially presented as ‘other’.Robert Entman, who presented the concept of framing, defined it as a method of critical discourse analysis in media studies by which some aspects of reality are given more prominence. Framing is also used to define a problem, make a moral judgment about it and offer a solution. The Western media has used the concept to project Muslims as a source of terrorism, judged them to be incompatible with Western values and unquestioningly supported the ‘war on terror’ as a solution.

Even before 9/11, Muslims were portrayed negatively. However, the hostility towards them increased manifold after the attacks. Western media in general and the American media, in particular, has used the terrorist and culturalist frames in a manner so as to suggest a connection between Muslims and terrorism.There is near consensus on the fact that Muslims are unable to integrate with Western societies because of their distinct culture and religious identity. Thanks to this perceived failure to assimilate into the host societies, the media has subjected Muslims’ religious beliefs to scrutiny, going to the extent of even questioning the very idea of inclusive societies.As propagated by neo-Orientalism, Muslims are inherently incapable of achieving modernity and their religious teachings are inconsistent with the Western foundational principles of democracy, human rights, and gender equality.
Orientalism is important to understand the nature of the Western media’s portrayals of Islam, for it pits Muslims in complete opposition to the West. Muslims are said to be lacking the dynamism and the capacity to break free of cultural straitjackets. They are ‘unenlightened outsiders’ who can’t compete with the West in pursuit of material progress.As is evidenced by the Western media’s portrayal of Muslim asylum seekers, it has shown a tendency of being racist. It has employed such abusive words as ‘uncouth’, ‘illegitimate’, ‘irrational’ and ‘uncultured’ to describe the asylum seekers. It has focused on the religious identity and ‘origins’ of those seeking asylum, and shied away from discussing their socio-economic and political backgrounds.
When the terrorist events involve Muslims as perpetrators, the media is quick to employ the label of religion, something it does not do when the perpetrator belongs to other religions. The indiscriminate use of the religious label serves to scandalize Islam and apportion the blame of an incident on the whole Muslim community.There is a dynamic and interactive relationship between media portrayal, public opinion and political discourse as they feed off each other. The media portrays Muslims and other immigrants as constituting a security threat as well as being a drain on the Western economies. This way a feeling of mass fear and Islamophobia is created. The electorate put pressure on their political representatives to adopt more restrictive and harsher anti-immigration policies. In the same way, political leaders exploit the environment of panic to push through their anti-immigration policies.Political discourse and public opinion provide content to media outlets that echo it without scrutinizing the actors. The framing of asylum seekers and the Bush administration’s ‘war on terror’ are two pertinent examples that highlight how the Western media has failed to perform its watchdog function. In both instances, it only played the role of a mouthpiece of the dominant elites.
For a long time, critical scholarship debunked the theory of Clash of Civilizations. However, the rising trend of Islamophobia, particularly attacks on holy personages and symbols of Islam, shows that religion and culture are the basis of intercultural and interreligious conflicts. The media, through its coverage of Muslim asylum seekers, has positioned Islam and the West as opposing ideologies. Muslims are portrayed as ‘primitive’ and ‘inferior’ in comparison to the West.The narrative of the Western civilization being superior to its Islamic counterpart has been articulated into a binary of ‘us’ versus ‘them’. The media has pushed this narrative to the centre of the global conversation about Islam. Muslims believe that the Western media has been unfair to them, with the result that their second and third generations align themselves more with the global Muslim community.Before any policy to address Islamophobia is worked out, it is important to have a proper understanding of the media’s role in spawning it. The establishment of a TV channel should be followed by research institutes and think tanks that are capable of generating ideas that can clarify misconceptions and win the battle of hearts and minds.

Japans suicide rates highlights the other health challenges.(Global opinion)

Japans suicide rates highlights the other health challenges.
(Global opinion)
Japan , suicide is considered a major social issue. In 2017, the country had the seventh highest suicide rate in the OECD , at 14.9 per 100,000 persons. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis , rates of
suicide spiked heavily, increasing by 34.7% in 1998 alone and remaining relatively high thereafter.After peaking in 2003, suicide rates have been gradually declining, falling to the lowest on record (since 1978) in 2019. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis , rates of
suicide spiked heavily, increasing by 34.7% in 1998 alone and remaining relatively high thereafter.After peaking in 2003, suicide rates have been gradually declining, falling to the lowest on record (since 1978) in 2019.
Seventy percent of suicides in Japan are male, and it is the leading cause of death in men aged 20-44.
Historically, cultural attitudes towards suicide in Japan have been described as “tolerant”, with certain types of suicides being considered honorable, especially during military service. For example, seppuku was a form of ritual suicide by
self-disembowelment practiced mainly by samurai to avoid dishonor, such as after defeat in battle or after bringing shame upon oneself. During World War II , the Empire of Japan regularly employed kamikaze and banzai charge suicide attacks and encouraged suicide as a preferable alternative to capture.
Seventy percent of suicides in Japan are male, and it is the leading cause of death in men aged 20-44
Historically, cultural attitudes towards suicide in Japan have been described as “tolerant”, with certain types of suicides being considered honorable, especially during military service. For example, seppuku was a form of ritual suicide by
self-disembowelment practiced mainly by samurai to avoid dishonor, such as after defeat in battle or after bringing shame upon oneself. During World War II , the Empire of Japan regularly employed kamikaze and banzai charge suicide attacks and encouraged suicide as a preferable alternative to capture.As of 2020, the leading motive, with 49% of suicides was “Health issues”. However because the category for health issues includes both mental (e.g., depression) and physical issues, it is not possible to distinguish between the two.
The second most commonly listed motive for suicides was “Financial/Poverty related issues” (e.g., Too much debt, Poverty), which was a motive in 17% of suicides.
The third motive is “Household issues” (e.g., disagreements in the family) listed in 15% of suicides.
Fourth on the list are “Workplace issues” (e.g., work relationships) with 10% of suicides listing it as a reason.
The last two major categories are “Relationship issues” at 4% (e.g., heartbreak), “School” at 2% (e.g., not achieving the results you were aiming for) then lastly “other”, at 10%. Japan’s economy , the world’s third-largest, experienced its worst recession since World War II in early 2009, propelling the nation’s jobless rate to a record high of 5.7 percent in July 2009, causing a small uptick in suicides that year. As a result of job losses, social inequality (as measured on the
Gini coefficient ) has also increased, which has been shown in studies to have affected the suicide rates in Japan proportionately more than in other OECD countries.
A contributing factor to the suicide statistics among those who were employed was the increasing pressure of retaining jobs by putting in more hours of overtime and taking fewer holidays and sick days. According to government figures, “fatigue from work” and health problems, including work-related depression, were prime motives for suicides, adversely affecting the social wellbeing of salarymen and accounting for 47 percent of the suicides in 2008. Out of 2,207 work-related suicides in 2007, the most common reason (672 suicides) was overwork, a death known as karōshi .
Furthermore, the void experienced after being forced to retire from the workplace is said to be partly responsible for the large number of elderly suicides every year. In response to these deaths, many companies, communities, and local governments have begun to offer activities and classes for recently retired senior citizens who are at risk of feeling isolated, lonely, and without purpose or identity.

Expectation of employees from organization;

Expectation of employees from organization;
Employee Expectations
Your employer will expect certain things of you, but you also have the right to expect things of your employer. Employee expectations include the timely and accurate payment of wages, adequate training, safe working conditions, full explanation of all company policies and especially of your job responsibilities, and fair and constructive feedback from your supervisor. If any of these expectations are not being met, you should have a conversation with your supervisor to discuss the situation. Most of these employee expectations are not only reasonable, but also are required by law.
Consider these tips:
1.Make expectations crystal clear. Expectations should be simplistically written and should clearly define what your employee needs to do. …
2.Tell employees WHY. Let your employees know why what they’re doing matters. …
3.Set up for success. …
4.Measure success. …
5.Carve out the time. …
6.Listen.
Make expectations crystal clear.
Expectations should be simplistically written and should clearly define what your employee needs to do. Strong leaders lay out exactly what success looks like. For example, if a call-center employee needs to improve her customer satisfaction score, you would tell her to stick to the pre-approved script at all times and quickly loop in a supervisor if there is a situation outside of her comfort zone that needs escalation. If she fails to achieve these goals, you have made it clear that she will not have met expectations.

  1. Tell employees WHY.
    Let your employees know why what they’re doing matters. Explain to them how their roles fit into the overall organization. For example, an employee may look at proofing a document as a junior task or a waste of time. But once you provide the business context, telling the employee that the client relies on the company to provide error-free work, the employee can better understand the importance of the task at hand.
  2. Set up for success.
    One of the best gifts you can give your employees is to set them up for success. You can do this by making sure they have the appropriate knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources to accomplish what you are asking them to do. Don’t make it so easy for them that they don’t feel challenged, but provide enough definition so that outcomes are achievable. For example, you may have an employee charged with creating a new logo, but he isn’t skilled at Adobe. He may need to take a computer class or get advice from the graphics team to be able to achieve success. It’s your job as a manager to make sure the employee knows how to access the support needed to execute the work.
  3. Measure success.
    When setting expectations, it is crucial that they are measurable. For you to know whether your employee has actually accomplished a goal, you need to have tangible evidence. Measurable goals in one department may be dramatically different than in another, but the key is to find several short-term or smaller steps within the overall plan that can be quantified. Skilled leaders help their teams track metrics, whether it’s sharing revenue progress or customer satisfaction data. Even more impactful are managers who measure success in a visual way
  4. Carve out the time.
    We cannot stress enough how important monthly check-ins are to employees. Putting in the time for one-on-one work with employees on a regular, monthly basis will have a huge payout in the long run. We suggest blocking out a set time each month with your employees (such as the first Thursday of each month at 10:00 am). Treat this time as sacred in your calendar—don’t cancel because of other pressing issues. This shows your employees how much you value them, how much you’re looking out for them, and how much you care about them and their career development.
  5. Listen.
    Many managers make the mistake of doing most of the talking during monthly check-ins or rushing to fill in any awkward silences. The reality is that managers are better off doing much more listening than talking. Our clients tell us how much they actually learn when they practice active listening—they hear whether their direct reports are facing challenges, whether they truly understand the expectations set and what steps are needed to reach them. Your tone is critical.
    Expectation of organization from employees;
    Reinforce your expectations. …
    Explain who, what and how. …
    Related: Why the Best Managers Ask the Most Questions.
    Notice what the work environment communicates to employees. …
    Take a personal interest in your employees
  6. Reinforce your expectations. As with any conversation, you should use simple and direct language when communicating your expectations. “The key to effective communication is simplicity and repetition of the message,” Lotze says. Hearing your expectations once won’t make them sink in — they need to be regularly reinforced.

For example, you might track progress in monthly check-ins, or call out employees that are meeting your expectations exceptionally well. When you do, reinforce which expectation you’re highlighting and what they’ve done to meet it. That repetition will act as a reminder and clarify the types of behaviors you’re looking to see from employees.

  1. Explain who, what and how. To communicate clear expectations in a constantly changing startup environment, make sure that employees always know what you are trying to achieve, how you plan to get there, and who will do what to reach that outcome. “Most failures can be linked to a gap in clarity about one of these three components,” Lotze says.

By clarifying expected outcomes, roles, and processes, you give your team all the tools they need to bring your vision to life. “If you don’t explain how your vision is linked to what your employees need to do, you’ll get a lot of great ideas with no execution,” Lotze says.

Related: Why the Best Managers Ask the Most Questions

  1. Notice what the work environment communicates to employees. For employees to meet your expectations, the work environment has to support the behaviors you want to see. “Every element of your culture must reinforce the expected behaviors you outline for your employees,” Lotze says. If the expectations are at odds with the environment, your employees won’t be able to meet them — even if they’re trying.

Effective expectations are supported by your reward system, as well as your company’s structures and processes. For example, if you expect employees to take risks, then you need to celebrate those who do, and establish a work flow that allows for failure and experimentation. “You have to practice what you preach,” Lotze says.

  1. Take a personal interest in your employees. Your employees come to the workplace with their own wants and needs, so getting to know each person individually helps you ensure that they understand your expectations and feel motivated to meet them. “By really understanding what makes them tick, what gives them energy, and what challenges they are facing, a leader can much more effectively drive performance and change behavior,” Lotze says
    Thank.you…

#Article#UrduArticle (Treffic Accident)

ٹریفیک حادثات۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔……..
آج کے اس ترقی یافتہ دورمیں انسان اس بات کا یکین کر ہی نہیں سکتا کے وہ صبح گھر سے روزی روٹی کمانے والا رات کو واپس اپنے گھر آ بھی سکے گا یا نہیں ۔ٹریفیک حادثات دن بدن برنے کی اصل وجہ لوگو کی ذاتی ٹرانسپورٹ کا بے جا استمال ہے ۔اور کچھ نوجوان جو جوانی کے نشہے میں خود کو ہوائی مخلوق سمجھ کر ٹریفیک کے نظام کو درہم برہم کر کے سب سے آگے نکلنہے کی کوشش میں سپیڈ کی حدود کو پیچھے چھوڑ کر آگے برھنے کی کوشش میں اپنی جان سے ہاتھ دھو بٹھتے ہیں ۔
اور بعد میں ان کے پیارے رو رو کر واویلا مچاتے ہیں ۔ٹریفیک کے پابندی کو لازم ملزوم قرار دیا جاۓ ۔جگہ جگہ پہ کھڑے ٹریفیک پولیس کے نوجوان اکثر خود ان حادثہات کا شکار ہو جاتے ہیں ۔ٹریفیک حادثات اے دن چاہے وہ اندر ون ملک ہو یا بیرون ملک ہر جگہ اس کی تعداد دن بدن برھتی جا رہی ہے ۔ہمین چاہیے کے بچو کو اسکول لیول سے ہی نظم و ضابط اور ٹریفیک کے قانون سکھاے جاۓ ۔ہمارے اسکول کالج کے نصاب کے اندر ٹریفیک کے قوانین پر پابندی کے بارے میں بچو کو آگاہی دی جانی چاہیے تا کے وہ کل کو ایک بہتر معاشرے کا حصہ بن سکے.
اکثر اوقات حادثات کی وجہ کچھ ہماری ٹوٹی پھوٹی اور ناکارہ سڑکو کا نظام بھی ہوتا ہے ۔جہاں پر جگہ جگہ بڑےبڑے کھڈے ان حادثات کا باعث بنتے ہیں ۔ہماری حکومت کو چاہے کے سڑکو کا بہترین نظام اور پختہ سڑکے بنائی جاۓ ۔اور جگہ جگہ پہ ٹریفیک کی پابندی کے لیے سائن بورڈ بھی لگا ے جاۓ ۔اور سپیڈ کی حدود کرا س کرنے پر بھاری بھرکم جرمانہ اور سزا مقرر کی جاۓ ۔تا کہ قانون توڑنے والے کو اپنی غلطی کا احساس ہو ۔اور آئندہ وہ محتاط رہے ۔اور قانون کی پاسد اری کا خیال

#NORMATIVE #THEORIES

NORMATIVE THEORIES
Introduction:
Normative theories were first proposed by Fred Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm in their book called “Four Theories of the Press”. At first the word “Normative Theory” was pronounced in USA during the height of ‘cold war’ with communism and soviet. Often it called as western theories of mass media.
A Normative theory describes an ideal way for a media system to be controlled and operated by the government, authority, leader and public. These theories are basically different from other communication theories because normative theories of press are not providing any scientific explanations or prediction.  At the same these “four theories of the press” were came from many sources rather than a single source.  Sometimes media practitioners, social critics and academics also involved to develop these normative theories.
Normative theories are more focused in the relationship between Press and the Government than press and the audience. These theories are more concern about the ownership of the media and who controls the press or media in the country.
Authoritarian Theory
Authoritarian theory is developed in the 16th and 17th century in England. The Authoritarian Theory is operationalized as strict control of content by the state and a general lack of freedom for the public to criticize state policies. Under an Authoritarian media system, ownership of the media can be either public or private. Ownership of printing Medias are mostly private, while broadcast and cinemas usually remain in the hands of the government.
In the past, it was practiced by ‘Tudors’ in England, ‘Bourbons’ in France and ‘Hapsburgs’ in Spain (Kingship Regimes). Nowadays, it is practiced in Japan, Imperial Russia, German, Spain, some of the Asian and American countries. The Authoritarian Theory describes the situation where states view the mass media as an instrument at all ties.  The role of the media is to mainly educate citizens, and acts as a propaganda tool for the ruling party.
The main difference between the Authoritarian theory and the Soviet-Communist Theory is that while the former allows both private and public media ownership, the latter allows strictly only public media ownership. Another difference is that while the Authoritarian Medias are mainly use to maintain societal status quo, a Soviet-Communist media is often used to bring about societal changes.
Censorship:
Censorship is a suppression of any communication which may consider as harmful to the people, King, government and its nation. Especially these censorship methods are much familiar in press which against the freedom of speech and freedom of expression. In some other cases, the censorship helps to protect the rulers and authorities from sensitive issues.
There are different types of censors like, Political censor, Moral censor, Religious censor, Military censor, and corporate censor.
Examples of Authoritarian theory:
For right Nikolai Yezhov, standing near Stalin was removed from this photograph after he shot dead in 1940. These types of censors are common during Stalin’s reign.
Journalist or any media persons should not have any rights to comment, discriminate or stand against the government. Sometimes, an authority gives considerable freedom to minority thoughts and cultural issues to promote them if it doesn’t make any threats to authority or ruler.
King – King is the authority, who has all rights to control the communication and no one can question against the king.
Dictatorship – During the world war II Hitler and Mussolini are the two major authorities who controlled the press in Germany and Italy. Press was under the control of the authority and No press can’t question against or publish against these two dictators.
Few countries blocked wiki leaks website from its country to maintain the internal security because the wiki leaks are not ready to compromise with government censorship and realizing classified documents against the government.
Countries whose media are practicing the Authoritarian Theory include: North Korea, China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  1. Libertarian Theory
    It was proposed in response to the Authoritarian theory and gradually developed from 16th to 18th Century. This theory proposed that people could differentiate between good and bad while press was the instrument to inform people so it should be free of control. This transition from authoritarian was advocated by Thomas Milton in 17th century, Thomas Jefferson in 18th Century while John Stuart Mill in 19th Century.

Under the Libertarian Theory, the media’s purpose is to inform, entertain, sell, and serve as a “watchdog”, keeping the government in check. Libertarian Theory involves some innate distrust of the role of the government and the state and a belief that everybody has rights to information. The theory also sees people as rational enough to decide what is good or bad and hence the press should not restrict anything. Even negative contents may provide audiences with knowledge. Libertarian thoughts are exactly the opposite of the Authoritarian Theory. 

Self-regulating marketplace of ideas

In classical capitalist theory as formulated by Adam Smith, there is little need for the government to regulate markets. An open and competitive marketplace should regulate itself. If a product is in high demand, prices will “naturally” rise as consumers compete to buy it. This encourages other manufacturers to produce the product. Once demand is met by increased manufacturing, the price falls. If one manufacturer charges too much for a product, then competitors will cut their prices to attract buyers. No government interference is necessary to protect consumers or to force manufacturers to meet consumer needs.

The idea that government shall allow business to operate freely and without official intrusion. The same idea of ‘free marketplace of ideas’ when applied to mass media it meant that if ideas are ‘traded’ freely among people, the correct or best ideas will prevail. The ideas compete and the best will be ‘bought’. So in the media system the marketplace of ideas meant that if someone comes up with a good idea and then transmits it through some form o mass communication. And people like the message. Then people buy the message, pay for its production and distribution costs.
Once these costs are covered, the message produce earns a profit. If people are wise message consumers, then the producers of the best and most useful messages will become rich and develop large media enterprises while the producers of bad messages will fail. If good ideas succeed these ideas should become more easily available at lower cost. Similarly bad ideas cost should rise and access to them should lessen. And eventually truth should triumph as envisioned by the early libertarians.

Limitations
But there are some difficulties in applying logic. As media content is far less tangible than other consumer products. The meaning of individual messages can vary tremendously form one person to the next. Just what is being traded when news stories or television dramas are bought and sold? When we buy newspapers we don’t buy individual stories we also buy other features which we might find offensive but others might not.
Advertisers buy time on the TV shows; they do not necessarily buy the rightness or correctness of the program’s ideas. Sponsors pay more to advertise on programs with large audiences. If the advertiser support permits bad messages to be distributed for free-maybe people are less discriminating if they don’t have to directly pay to receive these messages? So the media market place is a bit more complicated than the marketplace for toothpaste, and shampoos.

An example of a country whose media system applies the Libertarian Theory would be Finland. In 2011, the finish press was ranked as “freest in the world” according to Freedom House, (an organization promoting freedom around the world).
Other countries whose media apply the Libertarian Theory include: The Netherlands, and to a lesser extent, Hungary.

  1. Social-Responsibility Theory
    It was developed in 20th Century, when Industrial Revolution and Inventions of Radio and Motion Pictures led to the introduction of free but responsible press under the guidelines of ethical codes, regulations and laws. It was evolved during 1920s and 1930s with the concept of ‘Media as Fourth State’ coined by Edmund Burke in 1787. Hutchins Commission was formed in 1942 and presented its findings in 1947 where some members were in favor of absolute freedom while others were in favor of some regulations.

Social Responsibility theory is an outgrowth of the Libertarian Theory. However, the Social-Responsibility Theory does not assume that anyone can use the media to publish anything like the Libertarian Theory. Instead, this theory requires the media to adhere to professional standards and codes of conduct when exercising their editorial freedom. Under the Social-Responsibility Theory, ownership of media is mostly private and practice self-regulation according to standards, codes and guiding principles. The media is relatively free of arbitrary government controls.
Dennis McQuail in 1987 summarized the basic principles of social responsibility theory as the following:-

  1. Media should accept and fulfill certain obligations to society.
  2. These obligations are mainly to be met by setting high or professional standards of informativeness, truth, accuracy, objectivity and balance.
  3. In accepting and applying these obligations, media should be self-regulating within the framework of law and established institutions.
  4. The media should avoid whatever might lead to crime, violence or civil disorder or give offense to minority groups.
  5. The media as a whole should be pluralist and reflect the diversity of their society, giving access to various points of view and to rights of reply.
  6. Society and the public have a right to expect high standards of performance, and intervention can be justified to secure the public good.
  7. Journalists and media professionals should be accountable to society as well as to employers and the market

Under a Social-Responsible media system, the role of the media is to serve the public, and in order to do so, should remain free of government interference. The idea of this theory is that the media has a moral obligation to provide adequate information for citizens to make informed decisions. However, the different media can retain a liberal notion of healthy public disclosure. The media is also expected to represent the diversity of cultures they represent, and should have high standards for professionalism, truth, and accuracy.

  1. Soviet-Communist Theory
    Press and communication were instrument of Communist state supporting its policies and opinions, and informing people about unity. This theory is based on the idea of Karl Marx i.e. ideas of the ruling class are ruling ideas. Freedom at that time was explained as freedom from oppression of classes: Upper, Middle, and Lower. It was developed by Nazi Germany and Other Communist Countries.

Under the Soviet-Communist Theory, the state owns or in some way controls all forms of mass media directly. The media’s authority falls in the hands of a small group of party leaders. The role of the media in countries applying the Soviet-Communist Theory is to act as an instrument of the ruling party to unite people of the state, and to carry out plans of the party and state, bringing about societal change.
Also under the Soviet-Communist system, the media reports less on the bad things that happen under communism, and emphasizes the bad things that happen in democratic areas.
Technically, currently, no country’s media is fully under the Soviet-Communist system. However, certain countries’ media possess characteristics of a Soviet-Communist media system. One example is the North Korean media. Critics of  Soviet Media Theory:
Soviet media theory looks similar like authoritarian theory but the core part is different from each other. In authoritarian theory is a one way communication, there is no feedback allowed from the public but in Soviet media theory is a two way communication at the same time the whole media is controlled or works under the leadership.
Private ownership is not allowed which leads the press without any restriction and it can serve people without any authoritative blockades.
Soviet media theory allows some restriction based on the nation interest rather than personal.
Under communist theories like soviet media theory, the journalist or press should support the leadership rather than a watchdog.
If the leadership is wrong the whole nation will suffer a lot

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